DLeNM is not a research institution, although understanding and identifying the research foundation for our dual language education model design and implementation is central to our mission. 

DLeNM has collaborated, and continues to collaborate, with researchers in the field to engage in projects that help to define and support our programs' implementation, as well as ensure quality instruction for our emerging bilingual students.

Urgent Research Questions and Issues of Dual Language Education

In November 2008, as part of the La Cosecha Conference, nearly 40 dual language education researchers from around the United States met in Santa Fe, NM to define the most urgent research questions and issues in dual language education.  The findings of this convocation, Urgent Research Questions and Issues of Dual Language Education, are available for download at no charge. Click here for your copy. 


Convocation participants recognized the need for a stronger community of dual language education researchers and a more elaborate infrastructure for dual language research. The community could be strengthened by more collaboration between researchers and practitioners, more interdisciplinary collaboration among researchers, and more opportunities for researchers to come together to share findings and ideas, such as through this convocation. In order to move the research agenda forward, it is necessary to have agreement on essential terminology, and in particular, common definitions for widely used constructs (e.g. the designation of English Language Learner). In addition, it would be useful to develop stronger theoretical frameworks, conduct additional literature reviews and meta-analyses, identify more funding and funding sources for dual language research, and include a teacher research component in the preparation of dual language researchers.

Research questions were developed in six broad areas during breakout working groups. A great many research questions and research topics in each area were discussed, and prioritization of these research topics will continue in the coming months. The table below provides examples of overarching questions from each area.

Area or broad research topic

One research question from each area

Biliteracy Development

What is the long-term effect of simultaneous v. sequential biliteracy development on levels of biliteracy achievement across the curriculum in pre-K to grade 12?

Political Climate

In relation to the politics of language and educational policy: What national, state, and local policies are effectively shaping P-20 dual language education and educational programming and practices at the local level in the US, and around the world?

The Cross-Cultural Goal

What is cross-cultural competence (knowledge of culture, attitudes, identity), how do we measure it, and how do we integrate this competence in the curriculum?

Peer Interaction

How does peer interaction differ among various groups (ethnicity, language background, SES, gender, etc.), across different configurations (L1, L2, integrated groups), and different contexts (elementary, MS, HS, cafeteria, playground, classroom, instructional)?

Special Needs Students in Dual Language

For whom, in what contexts, and under what kinds of circumstances is dual language not appropriate? How well do assessments and interventions meet the language and learning needs of various sub-groups of dual language students, and how may they need to vary across program models?

Program Demographics

Dual Language programs serve many different kinds of students, families and communities. Some programs serve primarily ELLs; others serve ELLs and non-ELLs; sometimes student homogeneity/heterogeneity comes in terms of class or ethnicity or race. What research needs to be done on the role demographics play in the success of a dual language program?

For further questions or information requests, please contact: Jay Parkes, Ph.D. – Associate Professor of Educational Psychology - This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In October of 2012, a second Researcher Convocation was organized and held by the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, at the University of Minnesota.  The results of this convocation can be found at:


DLeNM to Open Dual Language Education Department of Research

Organized and lead by researcher colleagues in related fields of dual language education, DLeNM will, for the first time, formally commit resources to the development of a department of research that will:

  1. develop evaluation systems to take a look at the impact DLeNM’s program and professional development supports have made with and for our dual language community; and
  2. identify collaborations amongst national and international IHE's where DLeNM can do its share in developing research initiatives for an area of research that continues to be a priority. More information to come – please stay tuned. 

For further questions or information requests, please contact: Jay Parkes, Ph.D. – Associate Professor of Educational Psychology - This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.