Dual Language Education for a Transformed World
This book makes the case for dual language education to become the standard for all schools. Written for new and veteran implementers, it provides hope, rationale, guidance, and the tools to transform education to 21st century standards.
Our first chapter, Reasons to Consider Dual Language Programs, is purposefully
short, to be used as a condensed summary of the benefits of dual language
education and the major research findings on dual language programs reported
throughout the book. In this first chapter, we do not cite references in order not to
interrupt the points being made, but the references are presented in the more detailed
text of the chapters that follow. Almost all of these findings in the first chapter
are from our own work and that of Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, who has spent her
professional lifetime conducting evaluation research on dual language programs in
the U.S. For parents, educators, and policy makers who want to convince others
to implement or expand dual language programs, this chapter is written for you!
Chapter Two, Beginnings, chronicles the history of bilingual schooling in the
U.S. from which dual language education developed. This chapter provides important
background regarding the relationship between the various program models
that were developed for English learners as well as bilingual programs designed
for native English speakers. We introduce program labels and terms used for dual
language, contrasting these with subtractive models developed for English learners
that have been shown to be much less effective than additive dual language programs.
Dr. Collier (Ginger) lived this history and has served as one of the historians
of our field as it has developed in the U.S. from the 1960s to the present.
The third and fourth chapters focus on the non-negotiable characteristics and
qualities that make dual language programs work so effectively. Chapter Three,
Defining Dual Language Education, discusses both two-way and one-way models,
showing that both are equally effective enrichment models. Also defined are differences
between 90:10 and 50:50 programs, with our research showing that 90:10
is the most efficient in getting English learners to grade-level in their second language,
even though this involves less instructional time in English initially. We also
introduce the non-negotiables of dual language schooling in detail: K-12 commitment,
separation of the two languages, and at least 50% of the curriculum taught
through the partner language. Chapter Four, Unique Qualities of Dual Language
Education, discusses additional implementation decisions, including who will participate
in the program, recruitment of teachers and staff, instructional practices,
and community engagement.
The fifth and sixth chapters provide new Thomas and Collier research findings
on dual language education that have not been published to date. The North
Carolina research reported in Chapter Five, Astounding Effectiveness: The North
Carolina Story, is quite an amazing story, with dual language education serving as
a very positive influence on student achievement for all student groups, including
English learners, Latinos, African Americans, Caucasian Americans, students of
low-income background, and students with special needs. Chapter Six, More Dual
Language Research Findings from Thomas and Collier, includes findings from our
research in Woodburn, Oregon, on dual language schools as well as key points
regarding a summary of all our research, as reflected in the Thomas and Collier
research figure that is most popular.
Chapter Seven, The Beauty of Dual Language Education, summarizes why dual
language education is so successful. For those who are not yet convinced, this is
another chapter worth reading. Dual language education is based on well-defined
theory, is maximally effective with all groups of students, and is politically attractive
because it is integrative and inclusive. This vehicle for school reform works well
and provides important benefits for everyone—students, educators, families, and
the community. We hope you enjoy your reading!